Map of Social Vulnerability
The purpose of the “Map of the Social Vulnerability and Attention Deficit in Children and Adolescents in the City of São Paulo,” a joint project of the CMS and the City of São Paulo Bureau for Social Action, is to detect social needs by assessing the spatial distribution of socioeconomic structures within the urban territory. The description of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the 13,193 censitary sectors in the City of São Paulo, as per the 2000 census, reveals the susceptibility of certain populations and areas to different situations of social vulnerability.
By combining the dimensions of socioeconomic privation and the age groups, our study created eight groups. These groups reveal that the area known generically as the periphery of São Paulo is, in fact, heterogeneous.
The extent of disaggregation across the censitary sectors allows these groups to be clearly visualized. They are revealed in maps of the city and of each Administrative Subdistrict. Below is a description of the eight groups:
No privation (Group 1): This group is made up of 8.5% of the region’s sectors and includes 6.3% of the population. This group is better educated, has a higher income level and includes fewer adolescents and children in the 0-4 year old range. Thirty three percent of the heads of households are female, of which fewer than 6.1% had less than eight years of education. It would be fair to say that this group includes the wealthier and better-educated segments of the population, with fewer female heads of household and fewer children overall. The map shows that Group 1 is strongly concentrated in the southwest corner of the city, with small concentrations in other areas.
Very low privation (Group 2): This group covers 18.2% of the censitary sectors, and 15.8% of the overall population. It is similar to Group 1 in terms of living conditions and the number of children and adolescents, however the average age of the head of household is somewhat higher, and the group has a higher percentage of women with fewer years of schooling. 12.2% of the female population had eight years of schooling or less. The map shows that this group is more scattered, but still concentrated around the southwest, where social conditions are better.
Low privation – Moderately precarious social and economic conditions, with a higher prevalence of older households (Group 3): This group is accounts for 17.5% of the censitary sectors and comprises 16.4% of the population. It is the third down in terms of socioeconomic conditions and, compared to Groups 1 and 2, includes older households. It has fewer children in the 0-4 year old range (5.8% of the group population) and few adolescents (8.8% of the group population is between 15 and 19 years of age). Although the majority of the heads of household are literate (97.2%), the literacy profile differs from Groups 1 and 2 in that only 57.7% of the heads of household completed elementary school. Group 3 is located around Group 2 and also in the near-eastern part of the city, closest to the city center.
Medium-low privation – Highly precarious social and economic conditions, with the presence of adult households (Group 6): Group 6 accounts for 11.8% of the censitary sectors and 11.4% of the population. This group has rather interesting characteristics; it has the highest concentration of female heads of households (32.7%), 24.9% of whom have at least an eighth-grade education. It also has the oldest heads of households and a low population of children in the 0-4 year age range. Its population of adolescents does not differ from the city average. The group is similar to Group 3 in income and education, and on the map it is located close to Group 3.
Medium privation – Moderately precarious social and economic conditions and adult households (Group 4): This group is made up of 18.7% of the censitary sectors and includes 20.8% of the population. It is very average along all dimensions except for income, which is lower than the overall average for the city. However, certain elements position this group at a greater disadvantage than Group 6, such as the higher concentration of children between the ages of 0 and 4. On the map, this group is located along the periphery of the city.
High privation– Moderately precarious social and economic conditions and young households (Group 5): This group includes 6.0% of the censitary sectors and 7.5% of the population. It is characterized by the prevalence of young heads of households. Twenty eight percent are between 10 and 29, with the average age being 38. Only 25% completed elementary school. 67.2% of the heads of households have monthly incomes of less than three minimum salaries. This is the second-worst group in terms of income and education. 21.5% of the heads of household in this group are female and only 18.5% possess up to eight years of education. On the map this group is located on the periphery of the City of São Paulo.
High privation – Extremely precarious social and economic conditions and adult households (Group 7): This group accounts for 16.2% of the censitary sectors and 18.0% of the population. The heads of household tend to be adults and the household income is low; 60.4% have an income of less than three minimum salaries. Only 31.5% of the heads of household completed elementary school, 30% are female and, of these, only 25.4% have an elementary education or less. Map 3 (available in Portuguese only) shows that this group is located along the outer reaches of the city periphery.
Very high privation (Group 8): This group includes 3.1% of the censitary sectors and 3.8% of the population. It has the worst statistics in the entire City of São Paulo: a higher concentration of 0-4 year old children (13.7%) and adolescents (11.1%), and the average age of the head of household is 38. Education statistics in this group are terrible: only 81.1% of the heads of household are literate, and only 19.1% completed elementary school. Among female heads of household, 91.8% have less than an eighth-grade education. This group also has the lowest income, and 75.9% of the heads of household get less than three minimum wages.
Click on the names below to access the publication series related to the study "Map of Social Vulnerability of São Paulo's Population":
. North, West and Center Zones
. South Zone
. East Zone
DATA OF MAP OF SOCIAL VULNERABILILITY 2000
SÃO PAULO's SLUM DATABASE
In February 2003, CMS and the Department of Housing and Urban Development of the City of São Paulo released a CD-ROM with the digital cartographic base of the slums located in the City of São Paulo, this being the official record of the slums in São Paulo. The work is the product of a partnership between the two institutions for technology transfer. For further information on slums see also the articles available in the library of this website.
The file contains a mapping system of the slums of the city, analytical text with the methodology, and population estimates and digital cartographic databases of the slums in the city.